The paper is devoted to the philosophico-methodological analysis of two fundamental theories – the string theory and the loop quantum gravitation. The theories attempt to unify the general theory of relativity and the quantum theory into one consistent theory that would describe, using a single language, universe as a unified dynamic system. The paper interprets the categories of „space“, „time“ and „time-space“. It analyses differing approaches to defining the above categories by the theories as well as contributions they make in developing them. Similarly, it discusses certain theoretico-methodological problems arising for the theories in constructing the new theory.